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  1. When deploying a web site or a web app, the most common web service solution for that is to setup a LAMP stack which consists of Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. In this article, we will learn how to setup an up-to-date LAMP stack by installing the latest stable releases of Apache 2.4.x, MariaDB 10.x, and PHP 7.x on Ubuntu 16.04. Prerequisites An up-to-date Ubuntu 16.04 x64 server instance. A sudo user. See instructions for Debian in this topic. Step 1: Install Apache 2.4.x Install the latest stable release of Apache 2.4.x using the following command: sudo apt-get install apache2 -y Use the below command to confirm the installation: apache2 -v The output should resemble: Server version: Apache/2.4.18 (Ubuntu) Server built: 2016-07-14T12:32:26 In a production environment, you will want to remove the default Ubuntu Apache welcome page: sudo mv /var/www/html/index.html /var/www/html/index.html.bak For security purposes, you should prevent Apache from exposing files and directories within the web root directory /var/www/html to visitors: sudo cp /etc/apache2/apache2.conf /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.bak sudo sed -i "s/Options Indexes FollowSymLinks/Options FollowSymLinks/" /etc/apache2/apache2.conf Note: In accordance with your specific requirements, you can customize more settings in that file later. Start the Apache service and make it start on system boot: sudo systemctl start apache2.service sudo systemctl enable apache2.service Step 2: Install MariaDB 10.x At the time of writing this article, the current stable release of MariaDB is 10.1. You can use the following commands to install MariaDB 10.1 on your Ubuntu 16.04 x64 system. Setup the system apt repo: sudo apt-get install software-properties-common sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xF1656F24C74CD1D8 sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://mirror.jmu.edu/pub/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial main' Install MariaDB: sudo apt update -y sudo apt install -y mariadb-server During the installation process, the MariaDB package configuration wizard will automatically pop up and ask you to setup a new password for the MariaDB rootuser. For now, just press Enter every time the wizard pops up to skip this step because we will setup a password for the MariaDB root user in the following securing MariaDB procedure. Having MariaDB installed, you can confirm the installation with: mysql -V The output should be similar to: mysql Ver 15.1 Distrib 10.1.22-MariaDB, for debian-linux-gnu (x86_64) using readline 5.2 Start the MariaDB service: sudo systemctl start mariadb.service sudo systemctl enable mariadb.service Secure the installation of MariaDB: sudo /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation During the interactive process, answer questions one by one as follows: Enter current password for root (enter for none): <Enter> Set root password? [Y/n]: Y New password: <your-MariaDB-root-password> Re-enter new password: <your-MariaDB-root-password> Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]: Y Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]: Y Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]: Y Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]: Y Note: Be sure to replace <your-MariaDB-root-password> with your own MariaDB root password. In this fashion, MariaDB 10.1 has been securely installed onto your system. In the future, you can setup designated users and databases for your web apps as follows: Log into the MySQL shell as root: mysql -u root -p Type the MariaDB root password you set earlier when prompted. Create a MariaDB database webapp, a database user webappuser, and the database user's password yourpassword: CREATE DATABASE webapp; CREATE USER 'webappuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON webapp.* TO 'webappuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword' WITH GRANT OPTION; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT; If necessary, you can customize MariaDB by reviewing and editing the main MariaDB config file which is /etc/mysql/my.cnf: sudo cp /etc/mysql/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf.bak sudo vi /etc/mysql/my.cnf Remember to restart the MariaDB service if you make any modifications to that file: sudo systemctl restart mariadb.service Step 3: Install PHP 7.0 or 7.1 When dealing with PHP 7.x, please refer to another topic which describes the process in detail. Step 4: Setup the UFW firewall By default, the UFW firewall on Ubuntu 16.04 is inactive. You should enable the UFW firewall in order to enhance security: sudo ufw app list sudo ufw allow OpenSSH sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full" sudo ufw enable That's all. After going through the above procedures, the LAMP stack would have been up and running on your Ubuntu 16.04 system. You can then deploy your own web app on the basis of the LAMP stack. Enjoy it!
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